Currently, everyone has been affected by the present COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, the effects of the pandemic and its impacts are felt inversely depending on our status as members of society and individuals. Whereas some attempt to adopt homeschooling their kids, working online, and ordering food online, others lack the choice but to be exposed to the virus whereas keeping society functioning. Our disparate social groups and social identities decide our inclusion within the society and by extension, individuals’’ vulnerability to epidemics.
In their article, “immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2”, Catanzaro (2020) Outlines that currently no effective drug or vaccine has been approved to treat or prevent COVID-19 and the present standard care are dependent on supportive treatments. Catanzaro (2020) goes ahead to claim that due to the global and fast spread of the virus, imperative investigations are essential as a way of developing therapeutic and preventive drugs. They continue to state that the treatments addressed currently should focus on SAR-CoV-2 infection immunopathology. The article continues to state that whereas a well-coordinated and rapid immune response illustrates the first defense line against any viral infection, impaired adaptive host and excessive inflammatory inborn response immune defense might cause tissue damage both at the systemic level and virus entry site. Particularly, the substantial chemokine and cytokine release, precisely illustrate a widespread unrestrained host immune defense dysregulation.
Catanzaro (2020) outlines that the SARS-CoV-2 has been illustrated to generally affect lymphocyte balance and counting. The article illustrates that despite one having a rapid immune system, COVID-19 greatly affects the lymphocyte populations and organ injury. Additionally, both suppressor T cells and helper T cells were greatly affected by COVID-19. However, despite macrophages aiding the body in fighting off diseases, the article has outlined the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on macrophages, both indirectly and directly, and the probable therapeutic targets. The article outlines that SARS-CoV-2 drives macrophages and monocytes to prompt host immunoparalysis for the advantage of Covid-19 progression.
Catanzaro, M., Fagiani, F., Racchi, M., Corsini, E., Govoni, S., & Lanni, C. (2020). Immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 5(1), 1-10.